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The primary concern in the design of Wireless Sensor Network Media Access Control protocols is energy efficiency. As a result, when constructing Wireless Sensor Network nodes, energy efficiency must be taken into account. Most sensor network applications necessitate energy management and sufficiency over the node's lifetime, which might be several years. They must work together for common applications such as environmental monitoring and data collection. Each component consumes the least amount of power, ensures the average successful transmission rate, minimizes the average data packet waiting time, and reduces the average energy consumption. The wireless sensor network's lifetime is totally determined by the energy consumption of the nodes. As a result, the sensor nodes must spend their energy wisely. Media Access Control methods created for Wireless Sensor Networks sought to greatly reduce the ensuing energy waste when compared to existing protocols. The Media Access Control protocol is introduced as a novel routing protocol to promote energy economy and extend the lifetime of the wireless sensor network by providing load balance. This paper discusses and examines Media Access Control techniques designed for energy savings in Wireless Sensor Networks. Actual results, such as the limitations of Media Access Control protocols and existing methods that can be improved, will be obtained at the end of the study. Furthermore, the protocols used by Wireless Sensor Networks were explored in depth, as were the protocols that avoid energy waste in the Media Access Control layer. At the completion of the study, it is to find the best Media Access Control protocol for reducing energy waste and to provide opinions to help eliminate the protocol's flaws.
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